Crime Reporting and Definitions (NIBRS)

NIBRS

Crime Reporting

The Russellville Police Department participates in the FBI’s National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) to calculate, report, and present crime statistics.  NIBRS was designed to provide a more comprehensive view of the occurrence of crime when compared to traditional reporting systems.  NIBRS does this by reporting all unique offenses within an incident rather than just the most serious offense and by reporting more offense types.  The following information is intended to explain how offense statistics are counted and reported under NIBRS.

How we report crime statistics:

NIBRS provides a standard process for law enforcement agencies to report crime statistics.  In the NIBRS, offenses are either of the Group A or Group B type.  Group A offenses are included in reported offense statistics while Group B are only included in arrest statistics.  Each offense committed within an incident is assigned to one of three classifications: Crimes Against Persons, Crimes Against Property, and Crimes Against Society.  Within these classifications, there are 24 Group A offense categories (e.g., Assault Offenses) made up of 51 Group A offense types (e.g., Aggravated Assault, Simple Assault, Intimidation) that are included in the Group A offense statistics.

Note: Justifiable Homicide is an offense tracked under NIBRS, but is not a crime and therefore, not included in the offense statistics.

Counting Crimes Against Persons:

One offense is counted per victim of each unique offense type that occurs within an incident.

Example 1:

During an argument, an offender threatens two people with a handgun.  Threats with a weapon are considered aggravated assault. Two aggravated assault offenses would be counted for the incident, one for each victim.

Crime Against Persons

Offense Category

Offense Type

Assault Offenses
1Aggravated Assault

2Simple Assault

3Intimdiation
Homicide Offenses
4Murder and Non-negligent Manslaughter

5Negligent Manslaughter
Human Trafficking
6Human Trafficking, Commercial Sex Acts

7Human Trafficking, Commercial Sex Acts
Kidnapping/Abduction
8Kidnapping/Abduction
Sex Offense, Forcible
9Forcible Rape

10Forcible Sodomy

11Sexual Assault with an Object

12Forcible Fondling
Sex Offense, Non-Forcible
13Incest

14Statutory Rape

Counting Crime Against Property:

One offense is counted for each unique offense type per incident, with the exception of motor vehicle theft.  For motor vehicle thefts, each vehicle stolen during an incident is counted as a unique offense.

Example 2:

A car is broken into.  The stereo is stolen as well as a gym bag and some spare change.  The stolen stereo is considered theft of motor vehicle parts or accessories and the gym bag and change are considered theft from motor vehicle.  One offense of theft of motor vehicle parts or accessories and one offense of theft from motor vehicle would be counted on this incident for a total of two larceny offenses.

Example 3:

A group of offenders worked together to steal two vehicles from a secured parking lot.  Each stolen vehicle would count as a motor vehicle theft, so two motor vehicle theft offenses would be counted on this incident.

Crime Against Property

Offense Category

Offense Type

Arson
15Arson
Bribery
16Bribery
Burglary
17Burglary
Counterfeiting/Forgery
18Counterfeiting/Forgery
Embezzlement
19Embezzlement
Extortion/Blackmail
20Extortion/Blackmail
Fraud Offenses
21False Pretenses/Swindle/Confidence Game

22Credit Card/ATM Fraud

23Impersonation

24Welfare Fraud

25Wire Fraud

26Identity Theft

27Hacking/Computer Invasion
Larceny Offenses
28Pocket-picking

29Purse-snatching

30Shoplifting

31Theft From Building

32Theft From Coin-Op Machine or Device

33Theft From Motor Vehicle

34Theft From Motor Vehicle Parts or Accessories

35All other Larceny
Motor Vehicle Theft
36Motor Vehicle Theft
Robbery
37Robbery
Stolen Property Offenses
38Stolen Property Offenses
Vandalism
39Vandalism

Counting Crimes Against Society:

One offense is counted for each unique offense type per incident.

Example 4:

A shooting, with no victims, is reported and an offender is found to be in possession of a weapon as well as heroin and syringes.  The shooting and weapon possession would both be classified as a weapon law violations offense type.  Since each unique offense type is counted once per incident, only one weapons law violation would be counted.  Possession of heroin would be considered the offense type of drug/narcotics violation while possession of the syringe would be the offense type of drug equipment violation.  One drug/narcotics violation and one drug equipment violation would be counted on the incident for a total of two drug offenses.

Crime Against Society

Offense Category

Offense Type

Animal Cruelty Offenses
40Animal Cruelty
Drug/Narcotic Offenses
41Drug/Narcotic Violations

42Drug Equipment Violations
Gambling Offenses
43Betting/Wagering

44Operating/Promoting/Assisting Gambling

45Gambling Equipment Violations

46Sports Tampering
Pornography/Obscene Material
47Pornography/Obscene Material
Prostitution Offenses
48Prostitution

49Assisting or Promoting Prostitution

50Purchasing Prostitution
Weapon Law Violations
51Weapon Law Violations

Total Group A Offenses:

Crimes Against Persons + Crimes Against Property + Crimes Against Society = Total Offenses

Total Group A Incidents:

The total number of reported Group A incidents represents the total number of unique incidents (cases) where at least one Group A offense is present.

Multiple offenses can be reported within an incident, so Total Group A offenses should be greater than the Total Group A incidents.

Crime definitions:

The following offense category and offense type definitions have been adopted from the offense descriptions published by the FBI.

Crimes Against Persons - Crimes Against Persons are those whose victims are individuals.

Assault Offenses:  An unlawful attack by one person upon another. Includes aggravated assault, simple assault, and intimidation.

(1) Aggravated Assault:   An unlawful attack by one person on another involving a weapon and/or severe injury to the victim.

(2) Simple Assault:  An unlawful attack by one person on another not involving a weapon or severe injury to the victim.

(3) Intimidation:  To unlawfully place another person in reasonable fear of bodily harm through the use of threats or other conduct without the display of a weapon or actual physical attack. Includes stalking and threats.

Homicide Offenses:  The killing of one human being by another.  Includes willful murder and negligent homicide.

(4) Murder and Non-negligent Manslaughter:  The willful (non-negligent) killing of one human being by another.

(5) Negligent Manslaughter:  The killing of another person through negligence.

Human Trafficking Offenses:  To lure a person into participating in a commercial sex act or forced labor through coercion or if victim is under 18 years of age.

(6) Commercial Sex Acts:  To induce a person into participating in prostitution through coercion or if the victim is under 18 years of age.

(7) Involuntary Servitude:  To lure a person into participating in forced labor (not commercial sex acts) through coercion or if the victim is under 18 years of age.

(8) Kidnapping/Abduction:  The unlawful seizure, transportation, and/or detention of a person against their will, or of a minor without the consent of their custodial parent(s) or legal guardian.

Sex Offenses:  Any sexual act directed against another person, without the consent of the victim, including instances where the victim is incapable of giving consent.   Includes rape, sexual assault with an object, sodomy, and fondling.

(9) Rape:  The carnal knowledge of a person, forcibly and/or against that person’s will or in instances where the victim is incapable of giving consent.

(10) Sodomy:  Oral or anal sexual intercourse with another person, forcibly and/or against that person’s will or in instances where the victim is incapable of giving consent.

(11) Sexual Assault with an Object:  To use an object or instrument to unlawfully penetrate, however slightly, the genital or anal opening of the body of another person, forcibly and/or against that person’s will or in instances where the victim is incapable of giving consent.

(12) Fondling:  The touching of the private body parts of another person for the purpose of sexual gratification, forcibly and/or against that person’s will or in instances where the victim is incapable of giving consent.

Sex Offenses, Nonforcible:  Unlawful, nonforcible sexual intercourse.  Includes incest and statutory rape.

(13) Incest:  Nonforcible sexual intercourse between persons who are related to each other within the degrees wherein marriage is prohibited by law.

(14) Statutory Rape:  Nonforcible sexual intercourse with a person who is under the statutory age of consent.

Crimes Against Property - Crimes Against Property have an objective of obtaining money, property, or some other benefit.

(15) Arson:  To unlawfully and intentionally damage or attempt to damage any real or personal property by fire or incendiary device.

(16) Bribery:  The offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting of anything of value (i.e., a bribe, gratuity, or kickback) to sway the judgment or action of a person in a position of trust or influence.

(17) Burglary:  The unlawful entry into a building or other structure with the intent to commit a theft.

(18) Counterfeiting/Forgery:  Making or altering something with the intent to deceive or defraud by passing the imitation as genuine; or buying, selling, or possessing the imitation with the intent to deceive or defraud.

(19) Embezzlement:  The unlawful misappropriation by an offender to their own use or purpose of money, property, or some other thing of value entrusted to their care, custody, or control.

(20) Extortion/Blackmail:  To unlawfully obtain money, property, or any other thing of value, either tangible or intangible (e.g. reputation), through the use or threats or other coercive means.

Fraud Offenses:  Deceit to induce an entity to part with something of value or to surrender a legal right.  Includes seven specific fraud offenses.

(21) False Pretenses/Swindle/Confidence Game:  The intentional misrepresentation of existing fact or condition, or the use of some other deceptive scheme or device, to obtain money, goods, or other things of value.

(22) Credit Card/ATM Fraud:  The unlawful use of a credit (or debit) card or automated teller machine for fraudulent purposes.

(23) Impersonation:  Falsely representing one’s identity or position to deceive others and thereby gain a profit or advantage, enjoy some right or privilege, or subject another person or entity to an expense, charge, or liability which would not have otherwise been incurred.

(24) Welfare Fraud:  The use of deceitful statements, practices, or devices to unlawfully obtain welfare benefits.

(25) Wire Fraud:  The use of an electric or electronic communications facility to intentionally transmit a false and/or deceptive message in furtherance of a fraudulent activity.

(26) Identity Theft:  Wrongfully obtaining and using another person’s personal data (e.g., name, date of birth, Social Security number, driver’s license number, credit card number).

(27) Hacking/Computer Invasion:  Wrongfully gaining access to another person’s or institution’s computer software, hardware, or networks without authorized permissions or security clearances.

Larceny/Theft Offenses:  The unlawful taking away of property from the possession of another entity.  Includes eight larceny/theft offenses.

(28) Pocket-picking:  The theft of articles from another person’s physical possession by stealth where the victim usually does not become immediately aware of the theft.

(29) Purse-snatching:  The grabbing or snatching of a purse, handbag, etc., from the physical possession of another person.

(30) Shoplifting:  The theft of goods or merchandise exposed for sale by someone other than an employee.

(31) Theft From Building:  A theft from within a building which is either open to the general public or where the offender has legal access.

(32) Theft From Coin-Op Machine or Device:  A theft from a machine or device which is operated or activated by the use of coins.

(33) Theft From Motor Vehicle:  The theft of articles from a motor vehicle, whether locked or unlocked.

(34) Theft of Motor Vehicle Parts or Accessories:  The theft of any part or accessory affixed to the interior or exterior of a motor vehicle in a manner which would make the item an attachment of the vehicle, or necessary for its operation.

(35) All Other Larceny:  All thefts which do not fit any of the definitions of the specific subcategories of Larceny/Theft listed above. Includes bicycle theft.

(36) Motor Vehicle Theft:  The theft of a motor vehicle

(37) Robbery:  To take or attempt to take anything of value from the control, custody, or care of another person by force or intimidation.

(38) Stolen Property Offenses:  Receiving, buying, selling, possessing, concealing, or transporting any property with the knowledge that it has been unlawfully taken.

(39) Vandalism:  To willfully or maliciously destroy, damage, deface, or otherwise injure real or personal property without the consent of the owner or the person having custody or control of it.

Crimes Against Society - Crimes Against Society represent society's prohibition against engaging in certain types of activity; they are typically victimless crimes in which property is not the object.

(40) Animal Cruelty Offenses:  Intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly taking an action that mistreats or kills any animal without just cause, such as torturing, tormenting, mutilation, maiming, poisoning, or abandonment.

Drug/Narcotic Offenses:  The violation of laws prohibiting the production, distribution, and/or use of certain controlled substances and the equipment or devices utilized in their preparation and/or use.

(41) Drug/Narcotic Violations:  The unlawful cultivation, manufacture, distribution, sale, purchase, use, possession, transportation, or importation of any controlled drug or narcotic substance.

(42) Drug Equipment Violations:  The unlawful manufacture, sale, purchase, possession, or transportation of equipment or devices utilized in preparing and/or using drugs or narcotics.

Gambling Offenses:  Unlawful involvement in games of chance or sporting contests.  Includes four gambling offenses.

(43) Betting/Wagering:  To unlawfully stake money or something else of value on the happening of an uncertain event or on the ascertainment of a fact in dispute.

(44) Operating/Promoting/Assisting Gambling:  To unlawfully operate, promote, or assist in the operation of a game of chance, lottery, or other gambling activity.

(45) Gambling Equipment Violations:  To unlawfully manufacture, sell, buy, possess, or transport equipment, devices, and/or goods used for gambling purposes.

(46) Sports Tampering:  To unlawfully alter, meddle in, or otherwise interfere with a sporting contest or event for the purpose of gaining a gambling advantage.

(47) Pornography/Obscene Material:  The violation of laws or ordinances prohibiting the manufacture, publishing, sale, purchase, or possession of sexually explicit material.

Prostitution Offenses:  To unlawfully engage in or promote sexual activities for anything of value.

(48) Prostitution:  To engage in commercial sex acts for anything of value.

(49) Assisting or Promoting Prostitution:  To solicit customers or transport persons for prostitution purposes; to own, manage, or operate a dwelling or other establishment for the purpose of providing a place where prostitution is performed; or to otherwise assist or promote prostitution.

(50) Purchasing Prostitution:  To purchase or trade anything of value for commercial sex acts

(51) Weapon Law Violations:  The violation of laws or ordinances regulating weapons.